Date: 2014-03-10


Test C2030-280: IBM Cloud Computing Infrastructure Architect V1


Section 1 - Cloud Computing Design Principles

A) Given an audience familiar with the cloud computing, define the cloud computing paradigm and cloud deployment models so that various types of cloud deployment models have been explained.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a) Cloud computing is a new paradigm for both service delivery and consumption. This paradigm is characterized by rapid service provisioning, service elasticity, usage-based billing, and ubiquitous service access.

b) A private cloud is owned by an enterprise and operates within the corporate firewall. Services on the private cloud can only be accessed by approved users.
      1. Private Cloud -Premise: Client (Implemented by Service Provider)-Managed: Client-Infrastructure: Dedicated-Access: Internal Enterprise Network-Payment: Traditional
      2. Private Managed Cloud -Premise: Client (Implemented by Service Provider)-Managed: Service Provider-Infrastructure: Dedicated-Access: Internal Enterprise Network-Payment: Traditional
      3. Private Hosted Cloud -Premise: Service Provider-Managed: Service Provider-Infrastructure: Dedicated-Access: VPN Network, Public Internet-Payment: Hybrid - Traditional and/or Pay-as-you-Go
c) A public cloud is owned and operated by a service provider. Services on the public cloud are made available to users over a network, usually the internet.
      1. Public Cloud -Premise: IBM-Managed: IBM-Infrastructure: Shared-Access: Public Internet-Payment: Pay-as-you-Go
d) A hybrid cloud consists of both private and public cloud components. Some services in a hybrid cloud are owned and operated by the enterprise, while others are provide over a network by a service provider.
      1. Shared-Private Hosted Cloud -Premise: Service Provider-Managed: Service Provider-Infrastructure: Shared (by "member" clients)-Access: VPN Network, Public Internet-Payment: Pay-as-you-Go
e) Private, public, and hybrid clouds have key differences.
      1. Private clouds provide enterprises with a greater degree of control in the construction and delivery of cloud services at the cost of owning and operating the infrastructure.
      2. Public clouds allow enterprises to consume services without owning and operating infrastructure, while sacrificing some control over the construction and delivery of services.
      3. Hybrid clouds use a connectivity backbone to allow enterprises to consume both public and private cloud services according to their needs.
B) Given the attributes of Cloud computing, explain how the service delivery model of cloud computing differentiates from standard IT service delivery models, so that the new cloud service model and it's attributes have been defined.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a) Standardized, consumable, Web-based deliverable servicesA cloud computing platform combines the modular components of a service-oriented architecture and an Internet protocol-based convergence of networks and devices within a high-performance pool of virtualized computer hardware and software resources.

b) Elastic scaling(Elasticity and Scalability) Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned to quickly scale up and rapidly released to quickly scale down. To the consumer, the capabilities available for rent often appear to be infinite and can be purchased in any quantity at any time.

c) Flexible pricingCapabilities are charged by using a metered, fee-for-service, or advertising based billing model to promote optimization of resource use. Examples are measuring the storage, bandwidth, and computing resources consumed and charging for the number of active user accounts per month. Clouds within an organization accrue cost between business units and may or may not use actual currency.

d) Metering and billing capabilityDelivered at a granular level of billing and metering, this workload standardization can help measure, monitor and lower the cost of your services while easing complexity of your IT infrastructure. 

C) Given the knowledge of the IBM Common Cloud Computing Management Platform Reference Architecture (CCMP-RA), explain the three segments represented to delivery common, reusable assets, so that the building blocks of a cloud computing solution have been defined. 
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a) What is the IBM Common Cloud Management Platform Reference Architecture (CCMP-RA)?It is a cross-IBM effort for an RA enabling cloud economics by optimizing resource and labor utilization, and delivering the foundational cloud management infrastructure for both private and public clouds.

b) Which three segments make up the IBM Common Cloud Management Platform Reference Architecture (CCMP-RA)?The CCMP-RA is structured into three segments, Cloud service consumer, Cloud service provider, and Cloud service developer, all designed to deliver common, reusable assets.

c) What are the two components of the IBM Common Cloud Management Platform Reference Architecture (CCMP-RA)?
  1. Business Support Services (BSS): Business-level functionality for management of Cloud Services-Service offering catalog-Usage metering and accounting
  2. Operational Support Services (OSS): Operational-level functionality for management of Cloud Services-Service request management-Provisioning-Monitoring and event management-Image life-cycle management
D) Given the knowledge of the IBM's Cloud strategy, explain IBM's business strategy around Cloud computing and the core differentiators, so that IBM's solution strategy for supporting cloud environment has been defined.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a) IBM solution strategy for Cloud computing is to actively participate in three major addressable market segments:
  1. Components Supply -Virtualized servers and storage-Cloud software products (Tivoli, Lotus, Rational, etc)
  2. Infrastructure Services: Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS)-Computing on Demand-Smart Business Services
  3. Business Services: Software as a Service (SaaS) and Business Process as a Service (BPaaS)-LotusLive, Information Protection Services, Expense reporting
b) IBM core differentiators for Cloud are: (NOTE: define on a technical level)
  1. Workload optimization
  2. Deployment choices
  3. Integrated Service Management
c) IBM's key workloads for Cloud
  1. Analytics
  2. Collaboration
  3. Development and Test
  4. Desktop and Devices
  5. Infrastructure Compute
  6. Infrastructure Storage
  7. Business Services
d) IBM's Cloud portfolio includes the phases across the cloud life-cycle.
  1. Plan - Develop cloud strategies.
  2. Build - Build cloud delivery capabilities.
  3. Deliver - Provide cloud services.-From the IBM Cloud.-Define and deliver a cloud computing proof of concept or pilot for a specific workload.
E) Given an understanding of cloud computing, explain the different types of cloud services, so that their definition and differences are clearly understood.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a) Define SaaS.SaaS is a type of cloud service where the service provider supplies all the infrastructure along with the software product. Users interact with the service by using a Web-based front-end. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers. Examples of SaaS include IBM's LotusLive, Google Docs, Gmail, etc.

b) Define PaaS.PaaS is a type of cloud service that supplies the software and product development tools hosted by the provider on their hardware infrastructure. Users can create applications by using this platform and the APIs provided or with a graphical user interface for development. Examples of PaaS include from, Google App Engine, Microsoft Windows Azure, etc.

c) Define IaaS.IaaS is a type of cloud service that provides access to basic building blocks as services. These building blocks can be combined or layered to build the infrastructure needed for running the applications. Examples of IaaS include IBM Business Development and Test Cloud, Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Rackspace. 

d) Define BPaaS.BPaas is a type of cloud service that provides business services via Web-centric interfaces on multi-tenant and shared infrastructures without the need to manage or control the underlying resources. Examples of BPaaS include payroll processing, HR, etc.

F) Given an audience familiar with the cloud deployment model, outline the challenges of integration in a cloud environment so as to understand how IBM solutions can be used to address traditional hurdles in cloud integration.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a) Consistent access management policies in an integrated cloud environment are critical to reducing costs and avoiding security flaws. IBM Tivoli Access Management solutions allow you to enforce consistent access management policies across cloud environments to reduce both risks and costs.

b) Connecting applications across cloud environments can require extensive custom coding and present security challenges to the enterprise. Cast Iron solutions from IBM WebSphere enable users to connect applications and their data in integrated cloud environments in a highly secure manner without requiring custom user coding.

c) In an integrated cloud environment, creating secure access mechanisms between enterprise endpoints and public cloud endpoints is important to maintain flexibility without sacrificing security. The Secure Cloud Connector found in certain WebSphere DataPower Appliance models provides for identity verification of public cloud endpoints, and it securely transmits encrypted data between enterprise endpoints and public cloud endpoints in an integrated cloud environment. 

G) Given a set of infrastructure considerations when setting up a cloud environment, describe the importance of security, automation, network, storage management, and virtualization in a cloud environment, so that the infrastructure considerations of cloud computing have defined.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a) Security:
  1. Assess the risks associated with data integrity and security in the cloud environment.
  2. Regulatory compliance through audits and data location considerations in terms of privacy laws and jurisdictions.
  3. Protect sensitive data through access control and encryption to separate data in a multi-tenant environment.
  4. Backup and recovery of data in the cloud environment.
b) Automation:
  1. Provides standardization in deployment and management of IT services.
  2. Provides the ability to maintain or improve quality and cost of IT services.
  3. Provides a management stack that is easier to handle and provides for smoother workload migration.
  4. Provides the ability to reduce costly manual interventions and skill requirements, and reduces errors caused by them.
c) Network and storage management:
  1. 1.Network hardware supporting various networks used in the cloud environment. 
  2. Network management components used to administer the network.
  3. Components for monitoring the health of the network.
  4. Management and access to storage on the cloud.
d) Virtualization:
  1. Computing resources (application servers. physical servers, databases, storages, services) are dynamically and automatically provisioned as demand varies.
  2. Underutilized physical servers are consolidated into a smaller number of more fully utilized physical servers.
  3. Sharing, manageability and isolation of computing resources.
  4. Significant cost savings via server consolidations and optimal resource utilizations.
  5. Advanced virtualization - Virtualization with standardization and automation are necessary to provide increased flexibility while lowering costs. 
  6. Rapid provisioning of resources - With easy access to an easy-to-use service request catalog that hides the complexity of the underlying infrastructure, the end user is able to select and access standardized, pre-configured and pretested solutions, services and resources reducing the time and IT resources necessary to deliver. 
e) How do you design for failure? 
  1. Cloud computing is fully enabled by virtualization technology (hypervisors) and virtual appliances. A virtual appliance is an application that is bundled with all the components that it is required to run, along with a streamlined operating system. In a cloud computing environment, a virtual appliance can be instantly provisioned and decommissioned as needed, without complex configuration of the operating environment.
  2. This flexibility is the key advantage to cloud computing, and what distinguishes it from other forms of grid or utility computing and SaaS. The ability to launch new instances of an application with minimal labor and expense allows application providers to:-Scale up and down rapidly.-Recover from a failure.-Bring up development or test instances.-Roll out new versions to the customer base.-Efficiently load test an application.
H) Given a set of service delivery considerations when setting up a cloud environment, describe the importance of security, automation, network, storage management, and virtualization in a cloud environment, so that the service delivery infrastructure considerations of cloud computing have defined.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a) Service Delivery - OSS component of cloud infrastructure planning and architecture per the IBM Common Cloud Management Platform Reference Architecture (CCMP-RA)

b) Platform, Operating system and workload image provisioning

c) Monitoring and event management for SLAs within a cloud, including instrumented and monitored functions

d) IT asset and license management relationship to capacity and performance management for cloud architecture

e) Virtualization planning, design, architecture and management for service level attainment and maintenance
  1. Core components of Service Managed Virtualization and Clouds-Locating and Requesting Services: Secure user centric self-service portal / Automation engine / and Service catalog-Deploying Cloud Services: Automated provisioning / and Image management-Managed Cloud Services: Monitoring / Security and Metering
f) Cloud specific security architecture, planning, industry security frameworks and operational support characteristics, including data handling

g) Cloud specific storage and network architecture, planning, industry frameworks and operational support characteristics

I) Given a list of cloud characteristics, define their impact on service delivery models and how they differ from traditional the IT model so that a clear mapping of the characteristics to service delivery model has been produced.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a) Rapid service delivery:Services can be accessed nearly instantly allowing businesses to more quickly build, test, and deploy solutions. Rapid service delivery can drastically shorten their lead time for delivering new solutions, thereby decreasing solution development costs and increasing revenue potential.

b) Resource consolidation:The virtualization of resources like servers and storage enables users to increase asset utilization by driving higher density. In turn, this decreases resource requirements, decreases management costs, and decreases overall operating costs. 

c) Elastic scaling: Elastic scaling means that businesses can scale up and scale down IT services based on current demand and business goals. As opposed to designing systems for peak load which results in unused resources, elastic scaling means businesses use what they are required to meet their business goals and no more. Considerations for Scaleable Architecture, which include not just the provisioning of resources on a platform basis to meet the service needs and agreements but also the cross platform migration of applications or workloads to maintain and/or enhance the profitability of running client workloads on a cloud.

d) Self-service: Self-service access to IT services removes traditional obstacles associated with service acquisition. The decrease in service acquisition time can decrease the overall delivery time for a product or solution.

e) Usage-based billing: Cloud consumers pay only for the services that they actually use. This means consumers can more closely align IT expenditures with business goals, and consumers do not pay for resources that they are not actively using.

f) Ubiquity: By delivering services through the Internet and other networks, consumers can more easily gain access to cloud services. Businesses can use the cloud delivery platform to increase their delivery channels both internally and externally. This increase can increase revenue opportunity and decrease internal operating costs. 

Section 2 - Planning for a Cloud Environment

a.Given a list of common infrastructure and environmental components, identify their use in cloud environments, so as to understand how to evaluate a customer's current infrastructure and environment in order to facilitate the adoption of cloud.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

1.Depending on the cloud model being adopted (i.e. public vs. private), customer-owned servers may no longer be required or they may be repurposed for the cloud. Users considering adopting public cloud services will not use their own servers as part of their cloud. Customers considering building a private cloud may use existing servers, along with virtualization technology, to build up the cloud infrastructure.

1.As with servers, consumer-owned storage infrastructure is not a requirement when using the public cloud. For the private cloud, users will contribute storage to the overall solution and can choose from a number of different types based on their need.

2.Storage types like NFS, NAS, SAN, and more may be part of the user's cloud infrastructure.

3.Storage virtualization may be used in the cloud infrastructure.

1.Regardless of whether a user is pursing a public or private cloud, their networking infrastructure could be part of the solution. Many public clouds allow for the creation of virtual private networks that securely communicate with the user-owned network. For users building private clouds, their networking infrastructure provides the connectivity backbone for the solution. 

1.Applications must be closely analyzed prior to moving to a cloud-based environment.

2.For many cloud environments, applications must be able to run in virtualized containers.

3.Applications should be loosely-coupled so that their components can independently scale in elastic cloud environments.

1.Data migration, connectivity, and storage strategies must be considered when moving to the cloud. 

2.When moving to a cloud, some data may be migrated to the new environment. If moving data to a public cloud, all regulatory and legal concerns should be examined prior to migration.

3.Data connectivity patterns may require changes. For instance, if applications run in a public cloud but data is stored privately (cloud or otherwise), secure access channels are required to be established between the application and data.

4.Many new data storage options have become popular in the cloud. This includes key-value stores, non-relational object stores, distributed memory-based stores, and more. According to data structure and data access patterns, new cloud-based storage options may be more appropriate and efficient.

1.Automation plays a critical role in realizing the full value of cloud computing. Customer's existing automation systems should be examined to determine if it is possible to use them in conjunction with the new cloud computing environment. 

1.Migrating to cloud computing necessitates a certain degree of standardization for the services a customer uses to deliver via the cloud. Existing standardization practices should be examined to determine if they are sufficient, or if additional standardization techniques are required for the move to cloud computing.

1.Virtualization plays a key role in many cloud computing environments. Existing virtualization technologies used by the customer should be identified and evaluated to determine if they will integrate with the new cloud computing environment. If the cloud migration means new virtualization technologies will be used, existing infrastructure and applications should be tested with this technology. 

b.Given a clients desire to move their environment to a cloud computing model, review the client's current IT operational model, so that an understanding of the required functional changes are clearly identified.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Understand the client's IT Operational model as it exists today and their approach to design, build and run and how it is required to transform to a cloud operational model.

b.Identify if the client understands and has implemented shared services in their current IT Operational model, and leverage this capability for the transformation to a cloud operational model.

c.Understand client's level of convergence and/or separation between server, network and storage components in order to evaluate their readiness for Cloud transformation.

d.Hardware Layer: Understand the infrastructure component level mean time between failures (MTBF) metrics as they pertain to and are managed for a cloud operational model.

e.OS Layer: Understand OS level image rationalization and standardization etc.

f.Application Stack Layer: Understand application image standardization and application deployment methods, align workload related infrastructure requirements such as latency, collocation, data structures, transaction timing/security and version control; stateless vs. stateful.

g.Interconnection Layer: Understand the data structure, data sharing, and network multipoint implementation (latency, security, transaction etc.) SLA.

h.Availability/Redundancy/Continuity Layer: Re-architect for workload delivery, moving the architecture from individual server availability.

c.Given the understanding of cloud capabilities, define the workloads characteristics of public and private cloud implementations. 
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Why define workload characteristics?
1.Workload characteristics drive the rate and degree of standardization. Complex transaction and information management processes will likely present challenges and risks of migration to standardized services. 

2.Understanding the workload is critical to help determine which workload and services make sense to move first and to which type of cloud, public, private or hybrid.

b.Items to review with moving workloads to a cloud environment:
1.Regulatory requirements or constraints

2.Criticality or SLAs

3.Security concerns

4.Highly customized applications

5.Software that is not yet virtualized (third-party software)

6.Licensing issues

7.Complex processes and transactions

8.Interoperability between systems

9.Portability of components 

10.Integration of components

c.Workload or application characteristics for consideration:
1.Loosely-coupled-Computation and data are separate.

2.Model scales well, but requires new failure and consistency approaches.

3.Tightly-coupled-May not be able to separate application from HW components.

4.Decoupled-Private cloud computing, public cloud computing, or both, security must become adaptive to support a model where workloads are decoupled from the physical hardware underneath and dynamically allocated to a fabric of computing resources.-The decoupling and abstraction of the entire IT stack and movement to private and public cloud-computing models means that workloads and information will no longer be tied to specific devices, fixed IP or MAC addresses, breaking static security policies based on physical attributes. To enable faster and more-accurate assessments of whether a given action should be allowed or denied, more real-time context information must also be incorporated at the time a security decision is made.

5.Transactional DB-Data driven + small computation on small data

6.Require support for massive multi-tenancy.

7.Content-Centric-Computation is required to be close to data + large computation on large data.

8.Data and Storage Integration-Evolution of distributed file systems

9.Enabled through evolution of distributed file systems

10.Java Application Servers -Extending to highly distributed environments

11.What are asynchronous systems architectures? -To tolerate failure, applications must operate as a part of a group, while not being too tightly-coupled to their peers. Each piece of the application should be able to continue to execute despite the loss of other functions. Asynchronous interfaces are an ideal mechanism to help application components tolerate failures or momentary unavailability of other components.

d.Workloads that can take advantage of public clouds:
1.Test systems and environments

2.Single virtual appliance workloads

3.Pre-production systems and environments

4.Mature packaged offerings, like e-mail and collaboration

5.Software development environments

6.Batch processing jobs with limited security requirements

7.Isolated workloads where latency between components is not an issue

8.Storage solutions (including storage as a service)

9.Backup solutions (including backup and restore as a service)

10.Data-intensive workloads if the provider has a cloud storage offering linked to the cloud compute offering

e.Workloads more appropriate for private clouds:
1.Employee information or other sensitive data typically restricted to the enterprise

2.Workloads composed of multiple, co-dependent services

3.High throughput online transaction processing

4.Workloads based on third-party software that does not have a virtualization or cloud-aware licensing strategy

5.Workloads requiring customization 

d.Given a user interested in setting up a cloud environment, describe key requirements and considerations so as to produce a comprehensive plan for setting up a cloud environment.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Identify the required hardware and operating system components for the cloud.
1.Select hardware componentry and operating systems based on price point, performance levels, and virtualization technology integration. 

b.Procure server virtualization technologies that will be used as the foundation for the cloud environment.
1.Select server virtualization technology based on several factors, including compatibility with existing hardware, costs, performance, and capabilities. 

c.Based on user needs in terms of performance, volume, and access patterns, install the appropriate storage infrastructure. 
1.The storage infrastructure used must be compatible with the server virtualization technology in use.

2.Apply storage virtualization techniques where appropriate to increase density and decrease costs.

d.Configure the network infrastructure to support the services that will be delivered in the cloud environment. 
1.The network infrastructure must be compatible with the server virtualization technology in use.

2.Utilize network virtualization techniques such as Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) and virtual switches to decrease the overall costs of the network infrastructure.

3.Analyze the concurrent number of active endpoints to determine if techniques such as Network Address Translation (NAT), network masquerading, and private IP addresses are appropriate.

e.Put in place a service management tool to manage the various elements of the cloud. 
1.Service management tooling should provide an inventory of the elements (server, storage, network, virtual machines, etc.) of the cloud.

2.Service management tooling should enable provisioning and de-provisioning services to the cloud.

3.Service management tooling should include service request management capabilities.

4.Service management tooling should enable the definition and enforcement of SLAs.

5.Service management tooling should provide insight into cloud resource utilization.

f.Carefully analyze customer applications and workloads targeted for the cloud.
1.Map the interaction points between applications and the cloud infrastructure to understand dependencies and communication patterns.

2.Assess the application or workload and its affinity for a cloud environment by considering the application's characteristics such as its degree of loose coupling and dependencies on external components.

e.Given the objective of architecting a cloud computing solution, identify the network requirements to support the infrastructure, applications, and services.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Private, Public, and Intra-Cloud networking
1.Balance of security with performance-Network hops (latency) between application and platform servers, and client-Encryption overheads with VPNs (IPSec, SSL)-Non-encrypted connections

2.Connections to Public clouds-Network QOS with various ISPs-SLAs to ensure network availability and bandwidth

3.Intra-Cloud Connections-Bandwidth of trunk links between Data Centers-Architecting middleware and application location to minimize data movement

b.Network Hardware
1.Physical ethernet and fibre channel networks-Bandwidth-Switches and routers-Port Groups and VLAN tagging

2.Firewall rules to allow or deny access to network devices and protocols

3.Virtual Hardware-Virtual network adapters and switches - fully utilize HW and reduce costs.

c.Management Networks
1.Virtual server management networks: -Used to provision, configure, administer, monitor, migrate, and delete the virtual servers.

2.Hardware management networks:-Used to manage the physical infrastructure (Blades, blade chassis, switches, storage, Power Distribution Units).

d.Customer Networks
1.Provides access to virtual servers and customer applications.

2.SANs: Provides access to centralized, shared storage.

3.VLANs: Used to secure server and data access via network isolation.

4.Network Management/monitoring components: Used to administer the network and monitor the health of the network.

5.Server-side considerations

6.Outbound / Inbound requirements

7.TCP/IP configuration on various platforms, VIOS / XEN / VMware / Linux / AIX / Windows etc.

f.Given an understanding of cloud computing, explain the considerations for software migration, so that the software migration strategy is clearly understood.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Application Readiness: Migrating legacy applications based on old technologies to a cloud-based infrastructure will not bring the right benefits. Some of the questions to be considered are -> Is the application web-based? Will it benefit from a multi-tenant architecture? Can it scale out? Does it really need elasticity?

b.Data Ownership and Access: The application, the hardware, the operating system and everything else can potentially be owned by the cloud service provider. But the data is what the intellectual property is predicated upon and one should be able take ownership of the data as he/she sees fit. The cloud subscription gives access to the functionality of the application or function that one can use. If that access is removed, can one still access the data, so he/she can retain ownership? 

c.Data Volumes: Cloud is great for off-site elastic computing, where extra resources can be applied in the form of more compute power or more storage. However as the storage capability grows, migrating terabytes of data across a WAN can be a problem. 

d.Integration: Applications running in the Cloud will require integration with applications running on-premise and other applications in the Cloud. A robust integration platform is required to be available to facilitate this. SOA and BPM providers play a critical role in minimizing integration challenges.

e.Management and Monitoring: The application architecture should have provisions to provide good control to administrators on various management aspects.

f.Compliance: Cloud computing services for applications and data which are subject to compliance require a high degree of transparency on the part of service providers. One is required to carefully review the contracts and service-level agreements to understand how the Cloud service meets specific compliance requirements.

g.Cost Analysis: The business case for Cloud application migration is required to take the target Cloud platform into consideration. The migration and overhead costs vary widely based on the target Cloud platform and thus will skew the estimated cost savings. Cost analysis helps decide whether to go ahead with moving a particular application to the Cloud or not from a TCO/ROI perspective. Cost should include capital expenditure, operational expenditure, and overhead costs involved in migration.

h.Migration: Defining a migration strategy involves understanding the different migration options available, establishing business priorities, and evolving a strategy that offers a fine balance between costs and meeting business priorities. Basically, enterprises have two core options with a cloud infrastructure - private or public. Against these, they have the following migration paths to consider - Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Software as a Service (SaaS) or Platform as a Service (PaaS). The choice is driven by priorities such as elasticity, business model, security, migration costs, etc. It is not uncommon for a large enterprise to leverage a hybrid approach in any of the migration options and paths.

i.Transition: Actual process of migration, helps service providers realize the target IaaS architecture as a detailed design, covering the network, server, SAN, tools, processes, and people required for an operational model. It is underpinned by existing core competencies in network, compute, storage, tools, and process improvement and expertise in delivering advanced, virtualized data centers.


Section 3 - Architecting a Cloud Environment

a.Given knowledge of a cloud environment, define the IBM Virtualization Management solutions available for a cloud environment, so that virtualization capabilities within a cloud environment have been defined and resources are easily allocated depending on the workload demands to realize the operational cost benefits.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Benchmark the client's environment to understand the implementation of their current virtualization and provisioning solutions and management capabilities.

b.Understand the unique infrastructure and virtualization complexities around cloud computing, including service provisioning, in order to attain more effective resource utilization parameters.

c.Describe the IT network and SAN changes, new requirements and functional convergence relating to cloud computing.

d.Understand the problem determination and isolation complexities relating to the virtualization, workload management and provisioning infrastructure due to interdependencies, interrelationships and interactions. (PD/PSI) 

e.Describe the differences and unique attributes of cloud computing as pertains to workload over provisioning vs. over committing. 

f.Cloud systems are complex and integrated and require integrated management facilities to deal with systematic impact to services, which differ greatly from legacy IT downtime and service outage issues. 

g.Least common denominator issue in cloud computing, the smallest broken component and/or downtime will bring the entire service down.

h.IBM Cloud management facilities are integrated to escalate service outage issues which have a ripple effect on the entire system, furthermore the integration of management facilities simplifies the problem isolation and resolution processes.

b.Given knowledge about cloud computing and virtualization, describe the supported IBM hypervisors in the context of the IBM Virtualization Management solutions, so that you are able to recommend the appropriate hypervisor for a cloud computing solution. 
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Understand characteristics of the workloads in the cloud infrastructure.

b.Understand the business goals that are trying to be achieved by going to cloud.

c.Understand how systems and tools help deliver on those metrics.

d.Identify hypervisors that are supported in those environments.

c.Given a private cloud environment and an audience knowledgeable of WebSphere solutions, identify pertinent WebSphere solutions so as to understand their use in creating, building, and operating a private cloud environment.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.IBM Hypervisor Edition products, such as the WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition, provide IBM middleware technologies in a virtualized package.
1.Packages a complete middleware software stack into a single virtual image.

2.Optimized to run on hypervisor technology such as VMware, PowerVM, and z/VM.

b.Explain how the IBM WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance allows you to build, deploy, and manage middleware environments in a private cloud.
1.Integrates with hypervisor technology and network components to create a shared virtualized infrastructure.

2.Use IBM Hypervisor Edition products to build middleware patterns to be deployed to the private cloud.

3.Deploy middleware patterns to the private cloud in a resource-aware manner.

4.Apply fixes and upgrades to environments deployed to the private cloud.

5.Track user usage and cloud resource usage in the private cloud.

6.Track software license usage in the private cloud.

c.Explain how the WebSphere Virtual Enterprise delivers cloud capabilities for middleware applications.
1.Create application SLAs that define required qualities of service for your applications.

2.Utilize dynamic application request routing to meet SLAs and ensure that the most important applications get the most resources.

3.Create and enforce application health policies that proactively identify and address error conditions in your application runtime.

4.Dynamically and selectively update deployed applications without incurring downtime or degrading user experience.

d.Given the understanding of cloud environments, describe what IBM solutions for monitoring and alerts. 
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Benefits provided by Monitoring
1.Collecting historic data to assist with planning future data center resource needs and to optimize virtualized resource placement; 

2.Capturing real-time data to quickly react to unexpected resource needs; 

3.Measuring adherence to performance SLAs; 

4.Proactively generating alerts and detail data to quickly detect and solve application problems;

5.Reporting resource usage data by application, necessary for allocating costs appropriately.

b.Components to Monitor
1.Applications and Database

2.Services and transactions-SLAs-Availability-End user response time

3.Server-CPU, memory, and storage-Virtualization, hypervisors

4.Storage-Capacity and performance

5.Network-Components-routers and switches, network traffic, SNMP, DNS, DHCP, LDAP-Performance issues and security

6.Data Center-Energy Management

c.Common Monitoring metrics 
1.Throughput - How quickly the service responds.

2.Reliability - How often the service is available.

3.Load balancing - When elasticity kicks in. (New VMs are booted or terminated, for example.)

4.Durability - How likely the data is to be lost.

5.Elasticity - The ability for a given resource to grow infinitely, with limits (the maximum amount of storage or bandwidth, for example) clearly stated.

6.Linearity - How a system performs as the load increases.

7.Agility - How quickly the provider responds as the consumer's resource load scales up and down.

8.Automation - What percentage of requests to the provider are handled without any human interaction.

9.Customer service response times - How quickly the provider responds to a service request. This refers to the human interactions required when something goes wrong with the on-demand, self-service aspects of the cloud.

d.What is the purpose of event management?
1.Report and automate the response to changes in the infrastructure from monitoring.

2.Report and automate the availability of the infrastructure.

e.Monitoring options
1.Monitoring tools and agents can be included in SW or HW solutions for private clouds.

2.Integrated to existing monitoring tools.

3.Real-time service visibility, dashboards and intelligence from Cloud Solution Provider

4.Cloud based monitoring services for public clouds

5.Agent or agent less monitoring 

e.Given an understanding of cloud computing, explain the different IBM provisioning solutions, so that the IBM provisioning strategy for a cloud environment is clearly understood.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Provisioning is the most import aspect of a cloud environment which provides automation of the Service Catalog functions.

b.IBM provides the following 3 solutions for provisioning in a cloud environment. 
1.Tivoli Service Automation Manager (TSAM): It is a software solution optimized to accelerate Cloud deployments with an approach to service-aware automation. To achieve this it leverages both Tivoli's Process Automation Engine (TPAE) and IBM's CCMDB for clearly defined insights into physical and virtual infrastructure interdependencies from a configuration, asset and service management perspective. It also includes capabilities from Tivoli Provisioning Manager (TPM) for actively provisioning new VMs and the Tivoli Service Request Manager (TSRM) for self-provisioning through service catalog requests.

2.IBM Service Delivery Manager (ISDM): It is a tightly integrated service management solution that combines the necessary software components to implement cloud computing. It's delivered as a pre-integrated software stack deployed as a set of virtual images that automate IT service deployment, and provide resource monitoring, cost management, and provisioning services via cloud. Products within the software stack include TSAM, IBM Tivoli Monitoring (ITM), Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager (TUAM), and Tivoli System Automation (TSA), which is designed to control and optimize the performance of systems resources such as file utilization, processes, and IP addresses in clustered or Cloud environments.

3.IBM CloudBurst: CloudBurst is a purpose-built solution designed to optimize business workloads with minimal customization. It includes the entire software stack delivered by the ISDM, as well as hardware including pre-configured servers, storage and networking. CloudBurst is designed for fast deployment and fast time to value and supports a common user interface, common reporting, security, and other services across the Cloud environment. It integrates with existing systems, network and storage hardware, and comes as a single blade in a BladeCenter H chassis with redundant Ethernet and Fibre Channel switch modules. CloudBurst also supports energy utilization and management, backup and recovery, metering and accounting.

c.An architect should reference the following table to decide which provisioning solution best meets the need of the organization. 



Feature/Function TSAM  ISDM  CloudBurst  
Stand-alone Software Offering  X  X    
Self-Service Portal for reservation of computing  X  X  X  
Storage & Networking resources         
Rapid deployment of services in service catalog  X  X  X  
Automated provisioning and de-provisioning of resources  X  X  X  
"lights-out" automated operation  X  X  X  
Pre-packaged automation templates and workflos for most common resource types such as Vmware virtual images and LPARS    X  X  
Real-time monitoring of physical and virtual resources   X  X  
Energy management to reduce cost    X  X  
Integrated usage and chargeback capabilities through TUAM   X  X  
Reusable image library for rapid deployment    X  X  
Virtualization management    X  X  
Included quickstart implementation services      X  
Ready to go solution including Hardware,software and Services     X  

f.Given the objective of architecting a cloud computing solution, identify the security requirements to protect unauthorized access to infrastructure, applications, and services.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Assessment of the business and IT security risks; identify vulnerabilities and gaps in key security controls; create policy design and definitions for secure controls; and offer a prioritized list of recommendations against business goals for security best-practice improvements to help mitigate business risks.
1.Loss of governance - Because the organization may not have direct control of the infrastructure, trust in the provider and its own ability to provide proper security is paramount.

2.Compliance risk - The cloud provider impacts the organization's ability to comply with regulations, privacy expectations and industry standards, because data and systems may exist outside the organization's direct control.

3.Isolation failure - Multi-tenancy and resource sharing are defining characteristics of the cloud. It is entirely possible for competing companies to be using the same cloud services, in effect running their workloads shoulder-to-shoulder. Keeping memory, storage and network access separate is essential.

4.Data protection - The ubiquitous nature of data in the cloud raises unprecedented identity and access management threats. Because the organization relinquishes direct control over data, it relies on the provider to keep that data secure and, when it is deleted, ensure that it is permanently destroyed.

5.Management interface and role-based access - Cloud applications are accessed and managed through the Internet, and involve deep and extensive control. The risk associated with a security breach is therefore increased and proper access authorization must be carefully considered.

b.Assess your cloud security readiness with robust service offerings.
1.Identity and access management

2.Data protection

3.Auditing and monitoring

4.Legal, regulatory and privacy requirements

5.Access controls for sensitive data

6.Greater visibility and monitoring of access

7.Protection of data at rest and in transit

8.Adherence to regulations

9.Improved security management to increase efficiency and reduce costs.

10.Security and Resiliency defined as in the IBM Common Cloud Management Platform Reference Architecture (CCMP-RA)

11.Command & Control / Security Policy Management / Software, System & Service Assurance

12.Data Policy Enforcement / Identity Lifecycle Management / Threat & Vulnerability Management

13.Audit & Compliance Management / Access Management & Security Entitlement / Security Extension to IT Service Management

14.Availability & Continuity Management

g.Given the objective of architecting a cloud computing solution, identify the requirements and considerations to provide storage capacity, and data protection and recovery to support the infrastructure, applications, and services.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Data and storage management in the Cloud are critical:
1.To provide a reliable, on-demand service experience.

2.To reduce costs and enable scalability.

3.To mitigate risks.

b.The keys to effective cloud storage management include:
1.Data protection and recovery

2.Data security and life-cycle management

3.Storage utilization and optimization

4.Storage resource management

c.Automate data management policies through three distinct processes: 
1.Migration, Archival and Expiration.

2.Data migration within the Cloud can help you get control of, and efficiently manage, data growth and its associated storage costs by providing automated space management. It provides the following key features:-Storage pool virtualization that helps maximize utilization of the managed storage resources;-Restore management capabilities that are optimized based on the location of the data;-Migration that is transparent to the users and to applications;-Migrations that are scheduled to minimize network traffic during peak hours;-Automatic migrations that occur outside the backup window;-Threshold limit settings that can eliminate "out of disk space" messages.


Section 4 - Management of the Cloud Environment

a.Given the objective of architecting a cloud computing solution, describe and discuss the design of IBM Service Management as per the IBM Common Cloud Management Platform Reference Architecture (CCMP-RA).
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Business Support Services (BSS)
1.Offering management / Customer management / Pricing and Rating

2.Order management / Entitlement management / Subscriber management

3.General accounting / Invoicing and Billing / Peering and Settlement

4.Contracts and Agreements / Opportunity to order / Service offering catalog

5.Metering, Analytics and Reporting

b.Operational Support Services (OSS)
1.Service delivery catalog

2.Service templates / Service automation management

3.Service request management / Change and configuration management / Image life-cycle management

4.Provisioning / Incident and problem management / IT service level management

5.Monitoring and event management / IT asset and license management / Capacity and performance management

6.Virtualization management

c.Core components of Service Managed Virtualization and Clouds
1.Locating and Requesting Services-Self-service portal / Automation engine / and Service catalog

2.Deploying Cloud Services-Automated provisioning / and Image management

3.Managed Cloud Services-Monitoring / Security and Metering

d.Service Management Capabilities
1.Process and Technology Automation across Business Services-Align assets and resources to business priorities: How are resources being deployed to meet business demand.-Automate Service Operations: Are activities efficiently executed when delivering business services.

2.Visibility across Applications, Data and underlying Infrastructures-Map service dependencies to infrastructure: How are resources connected to provide business services.-Monitor infrastructure resources: How are infrastructure events affecting services.-Understand user service experience: How are services meeting business user needs, How are services meeting business agility needs.

3.Service Management Control aligned to Business Priorities-Provide business aligned dashboards: What is the health of my business and services that support it.-Provide Security and Compliance solutions: How secure and compliant are my business services.-Fulfill Service Requests: How effectively are requests for services being managed.-Continuous Service and Application portfolio management: Which services or application should be the focus of new solutions, transformation, improvement, cost cutting, consolidation or retirement.

b.Given the understanding of cloud environments, describe what IBM solutions provide reporting and analytics capabilities for a cloud environment, so that the IBM Cloud Computing reporting tools available from IBM have been explained.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.Usage and Metering reporting requirements:
1.Understand costs, track, allocate and invoice by department, user and many additional criteria.

2.Collect, analyze and bill based on usage and costs of shared assets.

3.Deliver detailed information and reports about the intricate use of shared resources.

b.Available Tivoli Usage and Accounting Manager (TUAM) reports in IBM Service Delivery Manager (ISDM):
1.Configuration Report - RCFGX001.rptdesign-Contains information about report configuration.

2.Client Report - RCLTX001.rptdesign-Lists all clients registered in the TUAM database.

3.Invoice - RINVC007.rptdesign-Displays the key accounting information, such as the number of server hours, memory hours and CPU hours, multiplied by the defined rate per each account code.

4.Run Total Invoice - RIVTC001.rptdesign-Displays the number of server hours, memory hours and CPU hours, consumed in the whole infrastructure.

5.Rate Report - RRATX001.rptdesign-Lists the rates as defined in the TUAM database.

c.Tivoli Monitoring reporting
1.Historical Data -Use historical data collection and reporting to gather useful metrics about your managed network. You can also use historical data with the chart baselining tools for predictive analysis and in situation modeling for key performance indicators.

2.Situations for Event Monitoring-Situations are definitions of conditions to test, such as slow transaction rates or invalid logon attempts. Use situations to raise alerts of certain conditions and to trigger single action commands or automated workflows.

3.Automating Actions and Responses-The Tivoli Enterprise Portal has functionality that enables you to design your own Take Action commands, Launch Application definitions, and Policy definitions, then store them for use by other users. A policy, rather than being run by the user, runs automatically when a referenced situation event is opened.

4.Custom Queries-In views that display monitored data, attribute values from agents are retrieved by queries to the Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Server.-You can edit the queries that are used in the predefined workspaces provided by your monitoring products, or create new queries to populate new views. In addition, you can retrieve data from any JDBC- or ODBC-compliant database to display in a chart or table by writing an SQL SELECT statement. These custom queries are created in the Query editor.

d.Define the Tivoli Common Reporting Tool.
1.The Tivoli Common Reporting tool is a reporting feature available to users of Tivoli products and provides a consistent approach to viewing and administering reports. Tivoli products can provide report packages designed for use with Tivoli Common Reporting, with reports that use a consistent look and feel.

2.Tivoli Common Reporting consists of several components:-A data store for storing and organizing report designs, reports, and supporting resources. The data store is a location within the Tivoli Common Reporting infrastructure where all report-related files and reports are managed and maintained. -A Web-based user interface for specifying report parameters and other report properties, generating formatted reports, and viewing reports. -A command-line interface for working with objects in the data store and performing additional administrative functions. -Report packages, archive files containing reports, documentation, graphics, and dynamic link libraries. Report packages for some monitoring agents are included as .zip files on the Application CD in the REPORTS directory, and the REPORTS directory is divided into subdirectories named with the three-character prefix that identifies the product. Report packages for some monitoring agents are available from the IBM Tivoli Open Process Automation Library ( You can search on "Tivoli Common Reporting" to find report packages on OPAL. A sample set of reports was provided with the Tivoli Common Reporting product. Other sets can be downloaded and installed by using the Import facility. You can find additional report packages generated by other non-IBM users, business report templates, and the Tivoli Common Reporting: Development and Style Guide on the IBM developerWorks (Website: -The open-source Eclipse BIRT Report Designer that you can use to modify reports or create your own. This tool is not included with Tivoli Common Reporting, but can be downloaded from or from the Tivoli Common Reporting page at IBM developerWorks ( 

e.Analytics Products
1.IBM Cognos-IBM Smart Analytics Cloud

2.IBM SPSS-IBM Predictive Analysis 

f.Business Rules Management
1.IBM ILog Jrules-The IBM WebSphere ILOG JRules business rule management system (BRMS) provides a comprehensive set of capabilities that enable Business and IT functions within the organization to work together collaboratively for authoring, maintaining and deploying decision logic that is critical to business systems.

c.Given an understanding of cloud computing, describe TUAM capabilities, so that IBM accounting and billing strategy for a cloud environment is clearly understood.
With emphasis on performing the following tasks:

a.IBM's accounting and billing capabilities on the Cloud are provided by TUAM. IBM TUAM can collect data from the provisioning solutions to provide service usage reporting and enable accurate billing of cloud services consumed.

b.It provides comprehensive insights into IT consumer costs across virtualized, hybrid and traditional infrastructure and application environments. From a Cloud perspective, it can show who's (individual, department, geography, SP customer, project etc.) using what and how much of the shared resources are available. 

c.If chargeback is desired, it can also generate bills, either for actually billing or for data-driven capacity and portfolio planning. TUAM drill-down delivers both per-service and per-service component usage, which is important for Cloud. For instance, it can itemize on a volume or dollars-and-cents basis database usage, e-mail usage, print server usage, storage requirements, and systems/workload usage for Cloud and non-Cloud infrastructures, in support of both distributed and mainframe-hosted services. 

d.The benefits of this type of visibility are manifold. It allows for capacity and resource planning, portfolio and service planning, vendor management, and conversely vendor-enabled billing for customers. 

e.Most importantly, it provides a foundation for IT and business executives to discuss in consistent and meaningful dollars-and-cents terms how and why and at what cost IT services are being used and so promote better communication between IT and the business it supports.